chromium consumption and recycling flow model
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chromium consumption and recycling flow model

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Published by U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Mines in Washington, DC .
Written in English


  • Chromium industry -- United States.,
  • Chromium -- Recycling.

Book details:

Edition Notes

Includes bibliographical references (p. 21).

Statementby Robert C. Gabler, Jr.
SeriesInformation circular ;, 9416, Information circular (United States. Bureau of Mines) ;, 9416.
LC ClassificationsTN295 .U4 no. 9416, HD9539.C4 .U4 no. 9416
The Physical Object
Paginationii, 40 p. :
Number of Pages40
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL1093239M
LC Control Number94017621

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Table of ContentsDescription of Flow ModelDefinitionsConsumptionScrapRecovery and RecycleFerroalloysProperties of Flow ModelAssumptions in ModelChromium. The chromium concentration and water flux were also measured, based on atomic absorption spectrophotometry and water flux equation, respectively. Results: Direct osmosis was highly efficient in chromium removal and water recycling. Water flux and chromium removal efficiency were LMH and %, respectively, under optimal conditions (drawCited by: 5. Recycling 85 Waste treatment 85 Chemical waste/dangerous waste 85 Wastewater and wastewater sludge 85 6 OVERALL ASSESSMENT 87 CHROMIUM CONSUMPTION IN DENMARK, 87 Net import of chromium and chromium compounds 87 Consumption of chromium and chromium compounds   Since Cr and Ni are recognized as energy intensive materials, the recycling of these elements should be enhanced. Therefore, the recycling of stainless steel obviously can have a major impact in the recycling of Cr and Ni. Johnson et al. () and Reck et al. () characterized a global substance flow of Cr and Ni, respectively, for the year.

Current Chromium Recycling Methods. The quantities of chromium-bearing scrap and waste generated in the United States and disposition of these materials have recently been discussed in detail by Curwick and Kusik. The Curwick study showed that the raw materials charged for superalloy melting may contain 37 to 60 percent scrap, depending on the. By search on the Web of Science (“material flow analysis” and “waste or recycling”), more than articles that used an MFA approach for analyzing waste and recycling issues were found. Publications in these areas started in the late s and the number has gradually increased, to reach more than 50 in . Chromium (Cr) has a wide range of uses in metals, chemicals, and refractories. It is one of the Nation's most important strategic and critical materials. Chromium use in iron, steel, and nonferrous alloys enhances hardenability and resistance to corrosion and oxidation. The use of chromium to produce stainless steel and nonferrous alloys are two of its more important. Chromium is traded on the world market in the form of ferrochromium, an iron-chromium alloy. The price of ferrochromium reached historically high levels in and then declined in with a weakening world economy. During the same time period, China's role as a chromium consumer has grown with its expanding stainless steel industry.

Resources, Conservation & Recycling has an open access mirror journal Resources, Conservation & Recycling: X, sharing the same aims and scope, editorial team, submission system and rigorous peer review.. The Editors welcome contributions from research, which consider sustainable management and conservation of journal emphasizes the transformation processes involved in a. Chromium (Cr), a hard, blue-white metal, is an essential trace element but its chromates are toxic and carcinogenic (Emsley, ). Chromium, which is ingested by humans through food and drink, can be toxic when it accumulates in the liver and spleen (Clarke and Sloss, ). The oxidation state of chromium affects its mobility and toxicity. • Phone books: When was the last time you used a phone book? The white pages alone cost 5 million trees a year. They generated , tons of waste in (EPA, ). You can opt out of phone book delivery by registering your address at sites like • Disposable razors: More than 2 billion disposable razors. Chromium emissions from basic iron and steel manufacturing in the UK Tin-free steel stock volume in Japan Share of India in recycling industry by metal.